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Table 1 Amino acids involved in Stickland fermentation in Clostridium spp.

From: Amino acid fermentation at the origin of the genetic code

e- Donors (reductants) e- Acceptors (oxidants) Donors or acceptors (depending on partners)
Alanine * [39, 70] Glycine * [39, 42, 70] Leucine*
Valine * [39] Aspartic acid [9] Phenylalanine* [9]
Serine* [8, 30, 42] Proline [70] Tyrosine* [9]
Isoleuine* [30]   Tryptophan* [9]
Threonine [8]   Arginine [9]
Glutamic acid [8]   
Histidine* [8]   
Cysteine   
Methionine   
Lysine   
  1. The underlined compounds are those abiotically synthesised, and the italicised items are the ones included in the "primordial" cycle, Figure 7D. Amino acids marked with '*' are synthesised via the glycolitic (including the pentose phosphate) pathway, and those marked with '•' are synthesised via the citric acid cycle (either oxaloacetate or α-ketoglutarate).