Schematic diagram of the methods. Black arrows represent the workflow of the GPF method, which used pathway features generated by combinations of GSEA leading edge genes and SVM gene weights. Red arrows represent the GLEG method, which directly classified using leading edge genes obtained from GSEA. Black dashed arrows represent workflow shared between GPF and GLEG. The SPF method used the same workflow as the GPF method with the replacement of pathway selections using GSEA by pathway selections using SVM. The train SVM step uses separate training features for the GPF and the GLEG workflows.