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Table 1 Approximate total concentration of key ions in various environments (in moles/litre).

From: On the origin of life in the Zinc world: 1. Photosynthesizing, porous edifices built of hydrothermally precipitated zinc sulfide as cradles of life on Earth

Ion Modern sea water Blood plasma Cell cytoplasm
Na+ 0.4 0.14 0.01
K+ 0.01 0.005 0.1
Ca2+ 0.01 0.002 0.001
Mg2+ 0.05 0.001 0.01
Fe 10-8 (mostly Fe3+) 10-5 10-3–10-4
Mn2+ 10-8 10-8 10-6
Zn2+ 10-9 10-5 10-3–10-4
Cu 10-9 (Cu2+) 10-5 10-5
Cl- 0.5 0.1 0.1
  1. The table is compiled from data presented in [90, 102, 172, 173].