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Table 4 Barriers (δΦ) for addition of amino acids to four different 2-codon blocks beginning from the 10 amino acid code in Figure 5.

From: A four-column theory for the origin of the genetic code: tracing the evolutionary pathways that gave rise to an optimized code

UUY (Phe) AAY (Asn) AAR (Lys) AGR (Arg)
Leu 0.00 Asn -0.02 Lys -0.27 Gly 0.00
Ile 0.32 Asp 0.00 Gln -0.16 Ser 0.36
Phe 0.41 Glu 0.23 Glu 0.00 Ala 0.48
Met 0.73 Gln 0.53 Arg 0.24 Asn 0.68
Val 0.75 Lys 1.09 Asn 0.46 Thr 0.69
Tyr 2.17 His 1.11 His 1.04 Pro 0.77
Cys 2.21 Ser 1.20 Asp 1.13 Asp 0.80
Trp 2.37 Pro 1.21 Pro 1.89 Gln 0.86
Thr 2.83 Thr 1.27 Thr 2.10 Cys 0.86
His 3.38 Arg 1.55 Tyr 2.27 His 0.88
Pro 3.41 Ala 1.92 Ser 2.66 Glu 0.92
Ala 3.55 Tyr 2.11 Met 3.62 Met 1.11
Gln 4.18 Gly 2.20 Ala 3.84 Lys 1.14
Ser 4.39 Met 2.50 Trp 3.86 Val 1.22
Asn 4.76 Cys 2.79 Phe 4.48 Tyr 1.22
Arg 4.98 Leu 3.05 Leu 4.81 Arg 1.23
Glu 5.24 Phe 3.06 Gly 4.81 Leu 1.26
Lys 5.37 Val 3.06 Cys 4.99 Ile 1.32
Asp 5.77 Trp 3.06 Val 5.06 Phe 1.36
Gly 6.02 Ile 3.29 Ile 5.26 Trp 1.58
  1. The amino acid assigned to each of the codon blocks in the standard genetic code is indicated at the top of the table. ε = 0.05 in all cases.