A: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the CDC48 orthologous group and its paralogs, including PEX1 and PEX6. The crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum and euryarchaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus sequences cluster together, consistent with an ancient eukaryotic origin of this protein family rather than an origin from a horizontal transfer, and they are used as outgroup. PEX1/6, as well as SEC18 and RIX7 appear to have evolved from CDC48, the central protein of the ERAD pathway B: Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the Npy1p orthologous group and its mitochondrial paralogs. This protein family has a single origin in the alpha-proteobacteria. Bootstrap support over 100 replicates of the maximum likelihood tree is shown in all partitions. C: Pie chart showing the relative distribution of peroxisomal proteins according to their phylogenetic origin in yeast (left) and rat (right). Proteins that do have prokaryotic homologs but for which no reliable tree can de constructed, e.g. due to short stretches of homology, are considered "unresolved". For a complete list of the proteins and their origins, see the supplemental material, for their phylogenies see .